Сравнение употребления инфинитива и герундия.
1. Инфинитив используется для выражения конкретного действия:
I do not like to skate today. (конкретный случай)
1. Герундий имеет более общее абстрактное значение:
I like skating.
2. Инфинитив часто выражает
He likes to smoke a cigarette and than to go for a walk.
2. Герундий выражает длительное действие:
He likes smoking by the fire.
3. Инфинитив выражает цель действия:
Sam went to the bank to get some money.
3. Герундий используется как существительное:
Cycling is a popular form of exercise.
4. Инфинитив используется после глаголов to agree, to appear, to decide, to xpect, to hope, to plan, to promise, to refuse:
He promised to help us with the decorations.
4. Герундий используется после глаголов to admit, to anticipate, to appreciate, to avoid, to consider, to continue, to delay, to deny, to discuss, to enjoy, to escape, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forgive, to imagine, to involve, to keep, to mention, to mind, to miss, to postpone, to practise, to prevent, to quit, to recall, to recollect, to report, to resent, to resist, to risk, to save, to stand, to suggest, to tolerate, to understand:
They considered moving abroad.
5. Инфинитив используется после прилагательных happy, glad, willing, eager, reluctant, anxious, mean, clever:
He is reluctant to help.
5. Герундий используется после выражений be busy, it's no use, it's no good, it's (not) worth, what's the use of, can't help, can't stand, have difficulty in, have trouble:
What's the use of waiting for an answer?
6. Инфинитив используется после too/enough:
She is too young to stay out so late.
6. Герундий используется после to look forward to, to be used to, to get round to, to object to, in addition to:
She objects to working on Saturdays.
7. Инфинитив используется после it+be+adjective:
It is important to get there on time.
7. Герундий используется после spend, waste, lose (time, money,etc), prefer:
We wasted a lot of time trying to find a parking space.
Глаголы, меняющие значение в зависимости от употребления с инфинитивом или герундием:
forget + to - inf = not remember
e.g. I have to go out. I forgot to buy a newspaper.
forget + -ing form = not recall
e.g. I'll never forget travelling by plane for the first time.
remember + to - inf = not forget
e.g. Did you remember to tell Sam about the meeting?
remember + -ing form = recall
e.g. I remember talking to him before.
go on + to - inf = then
e.g. She introduced herself and went on to talk about her new book.
goon + -ing form = continue e.g.
He went on writing letters until 10.00.
mean + to - inf = intend to
e.g. She means to buy a new car soon.
mean + -ing form = involve
e.g. She is determined to get a ticket for the concert, even if it means paying a lot of money.
regret + to - inf = be sorry to (it is normally used in the present simple and is followed by verbs such as say, tell, inform)
e.g. We regret to inform you that you have failed.
regret + -ing form = feel sorry about e.g.
He regretted selling his house.
try + to - inf = attempt, do one's best
e.g. We tried to move the heavy branch to the side of the road.
try + -ing form = do sth as an experiment
e.g. If you can't go to sleep, try drinking some milk.
stop + to - inf = stop briefly to do sth else
e.g. He stopped to fill the tank with petrol, then continued driving.
stop + -ing form = finish, give up
e.g. He stopped drinking coffee because it upset his stomach.
be sorry + to - inf = apologise for a present action
e.g. I'm sorry to say this, but your work is rather unsatisfactory.
be sorry for + -ing form = apologise for an earlier action
e.g. We are sorry for keeping you waiting.
like + to - inf = think that sth is good or right to do
e.g. I like to pay my bills as soon as I get them.
like + -ing form = enjoy (general preference)
e.g. Tom likes meeting new people.
would like + to - inf = want (specific preference)
e.g. I would like to go to that new restaurant.
be afraid + to - inf = the subject is unwilling to do sth
e.g. He is afraid to touch the dog in case it bites him.
be afraid of + -ing form = (the subject is afraid that what is described by the -ing form may happen)
e.g. She doesn't want to drive her father's car. She's afraid of crashing it.