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Глаголы в английском языке. Таблица времён английского глагола

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Глагол- часть речи, обозначающая действие и отвечающае на вопросы "что делать, что сделать?", например: to live (жить), to speak (говорить), to do (делать). Глаголы имеют грамматические категории времени (настоящее, прошедшее, будущее ), лица и числа, вида, залога, наклонения и выполняют в предложении функцию сказуемого. Неопределённую форму глагола принято называть инфинитивом. В английском языке инфинитив всегда употребляется с частицей "to", которая не переводится.

По своему значению и роли глаголы делятся на полнозначные или смысловые и служебные. Служебные глаголы частично или полностью утрачивают свое значение. Частичная утрата значения, например, наблюдается у модальных глаголов (саn, mау, и т.д.), что не позволяет им выполнять самостоятельную роль в предложении - они всегда употребляются в сочетании с другими смысловыми глаголами. Полностью утрачивают свое значение глаголы, которые участвуют в образовании сложных форм времени, вида, наклонения и залога. Такие глаголы называют вспомогательными. Вспомогательными глаголами могут быть такие глаголы, как will, have, do и т.д.

В английском языке имеется два залога: активный или действительный залог ( the Active Voice ) и пассивный или страдательный залог ( the Passive Voice ). Активный залог устанавливает, что лицо или предмет, обозначенные подлежащим, являются производителями действия, выраженного сказуемым, например: I made a mistake. - Я совершил ошибку. Пассивный же залог устанавливает, что лицо или предмет, обозначенные подлежащим, являются объектами действия, выраженного сказуемым. В силу своего значения пассивный залог может употребляться только с переходными глаголами - глаголами, в значении которых заложена необходимость сочетаться с дополнением: A mistake was made. Ошибка была совершена.

Система времён английского языка - одна из самых важных, но в тоже время самых тяжёлых для понимания тем. Схематически её можно представить так:

Tense Signal words Use Form Examples affirmative Examples negative Examples interrogative
Present Simple every day
sometimes
always
often
usually
seldom
never
first ... then
something happens repeatedly

how often something happens

one action follows another

things in general

after the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.)

future meaning: timetables, programmes
infinitive he/she/it + -s I work.
He works.
I go.
He goes.
I don't work.
He doesn't work.
I don't go.
He doesn't go.
Do I work?
Does he work?
Do I go?
Does he go?
Present Continuous now
at the moment
Look!
Listen!
something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it

future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date)
to be (am/are/is) + infinitive + -ing I'm working.
He's working.
I'm going.
He's going.
I'm not working.
He isn't working.
I'm not going.
He isn't going.
Am I working?
Is he working?
Am I going?
Is he going?
Past Simple last ...
... ago
in 1990
yesterday
action took place in the past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present) regular: infinitive + -ed

irregular: 2nd column of table of irregular verbs
I worked.
He worked.
I went.
He went.
I didn't work.
He didn't work.
I didn't go.
He didn't go.
Did I work?
Did he work?
Did I go?
Did he go?
Past Continuous while an action happened in the middle of another action

someone was doing sth. at a certain time (in the past) - you do not know whether it was finished or not
was/were + infinitive + -ing I was working.
He was working.
I was going.
He was going.
I wasn't working.
He wasn't working.
I wasn't going.
He wasn't going.
Was I working?
Was he working?
Was I going?
Was he going?
Present Perfect just
yet
never
ever
already
so far,
up to now,
since
for
recently
you say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and it has a connection to the present

action started in the past and continues up to the present
have/has + past participle*
*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)
I have worked.
He has worked.
I have gone.
He has gone.
I haven't worked.
He hasn't worked.
I haven't gone.
He hasn't gone.
Have I worked?
Has he worked?
Have I gone?
Has he gone?
Present Perfect Continuous all day
the whole day
how long
since
for
action began in the past and has just stopped

how long the action has been happening

emphasis: length of time of an action
have/has + been + infinitive + -ing I have been working.
He has been working.
I have been going.
He has been going.
I haven't been working.
He hasn't been working.
I haven't been going.
He hasn't been going.
Have I been working?
Has he been working?
Have I been going?
Has he been going?
Past Perfect already
just
never
mostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: the action which had already happened is put into Past Perfect, the other action into Simple Past

the past of the Present Perfect
had + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)
I had worked.
He had worked.
I had gone.
He had gone.
I hadn't worked.
He hadn't worked.
I hadn't gone.
He hadn't gone.
Had I worked?
Had he worked?
Had I gone?
Had he gone?
Past Perfect Continuous how long
since
for
how long something had been happening before something else happened had + been + infinitive + ing I had been working.
He had been working.
I had been going.
He had been going.
I hadn't been working.
He hadn't been working.
I hadn't been going.
He hadn't been going.
Had I been working?
Had he been working?
Had I been going?
Had he been going?
Will- future tomorrow
next + noun
predictions about the future (you think that sth. will happen)

you decide to do sth. spontaneously at the time of speaking, you haven't made a decision before

main clause in type I of the if clauses
will + infinitive I'll work.
He'll work.
I'll go.
He'll go.
I won't work.
He won't work.
I won't go.
He won't go.
Will I work?
Will he work?
Will I go?
Will he go?
Going to- future   when you have already decided to do sth. in the future

what you think what will happen
be (am/are/is) + going to + infinitive I'm going to work.
He's going to work.
I'm going to go.
He's going to go.
I'm not going to work.
He's not going to work.
I'm not going to go.
He's not going to go.
Am I going to work?
Is he going to work?
Am I going to go?
Is he going to go?
Future Continuous   An action will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This action has begun before the certain time.

Something happens because it normally happens.
will + be + infinitive + ing I'll be working.
He'll be working.
I'll be going.
He'll be going.
I won't be working.
He won't be working.
I won't be going.
He won't be going.
Will I be working?
Will he be working?
Will I be going?
Will he be going?
Future Perfect by the +noun sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the future will + have + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)
I'll have worked.
He'll have worked.
I'll have gone.
I won't have worked.
He won't have worked.
I won't have gone.
Will I have worked?
Will he have worked?
Will I have?
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:D
Thank you :D Very much
смешь
спасибо большое выручили
Albert
Good,good, sehr good!
Александр Ковалевич
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