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The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке

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Залог - это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее предложения производителем или объектом действия, выраженного сказуемым. Как уже было сказано выше, в английском языке имеется два залога: the Active Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный залог).

We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action.

Example: Appointments are required in such cases.

We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence.

Форма

to be + past participle

How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:

- object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence

- subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is left out)

Active: Peter builds a house.

Passive: A house is built by Peter.

Примеры

Active: Peter builds a house. Simple Present
Passive: A house is built by Peter.
Active: Peter built a house. Simple Past
Passive: A house was built by Peter.
Active: Peter has built a house. Present Perfect
Passive: A house has been built by Peter.
Active: Peter will build a house. will-future
Passive: A house will be built by Peter.
Active: Peter can build a house. Modals
Passive: A house can be built by Peter.

Сводная таблица:

tense active passive
Simple Present Peter builds a house. A house is built by Peter.
Present Continuous Peter is building a house. A house is being built by Peter.
Present Perfect Peter has built a house A house has been built by Peter.
Present Perfect Continuous Peter has been building a house. ----------------
Simple Past Peter built a house. A house was built by Peter.
Past Continuous Peter was building a house. A house was being built by Peter.
Past Perfect Peter had built a house. A house had been built by Peter.
Past Perfect Continuous Peter had been building a house. ----------------
will-future Peter will build a house. A house will be built by Peter.
Future Continuous Peter will be building a house. ----------------
Future Perfect Peter will have built a house. A house will have been built by Peter.
going to-future Peter is going to build a house in summer. A house is going to be built in summer by Peter.

Примечание:

Обратите внимание на позицию предлога!

Active sentence Passive sentence
Someone broke into the pet shop. The pet shop was broken into.

Не все предложения можно переделать из the Active Voice в the Passive Voice:

They traveled to Lisbon last summer.

I have a shower every morning.

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