The Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке
Залог - это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее предложения производителем или объектом действия, выраженного сказуемым. Как уже было сказано выше, в английском языке имеется два залога: the Active Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный залог).
We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action.
Example: Appointments are required in such cases.
We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence.
to be + past participle
How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:
- object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence
- subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is left out)
Active: Peter builds a house.
Passive: A house is built by Peter.
|Active:||Peter||builds||a house.||Simple Present|
|Passive:||A house||is built||by Peter.|
|Active:||Peter||built||a house.||Simple Past|
|Passive:||A house||was built||by Peter.|
|Active:||Peter||has built||a house.||Present Perfect|
|Passive:||A house||has been built||by Peter.|
|Active:||Peter||will build||a house.||will-future|
|Passive:||A house||will be built||by Peter.|
|Active:||Peter||can build||a house.||Modals|
|Passive:||A house||can be built||by Peter.|
|Simple Present||Peter builds a house.||A house is built by Peter.|
|Present Continuous||Peter is building a house.||A house is being built by Peter.|
|Present Perfect||Peter has built a house||A house has been built by Peter.|
|Present Perfect Continuous||Peter has been building a house.||----------------|
|Simple Past||Peter built a house.||A house was built by Peter.|
|Past Continuous||Peter was building a house.||A house was being built by Peter.|
|Past Perfect||Peter had built a house.||A house had been built by Peter.|
|Past Perfect Continuous||Peter had been building a house.||----------------|
|will-future||Peter will build a house.||A house will be built by Peter.|
|Future Continuous||Peter will be building a house.||----------------|
|Future Perfect||Peter will have built a house.||A house will have been built by Peter.|
|going to-future||Peter is going to build a house in summer.||A house is going to be built in summer by Peter.|
Обратите внимание на позицию предлога!
|Active sentence||Passive sentence|
|Someone broke into the pet shop.||The pet shop was broken into.|
Не все предложения можно переделать из the Active Voice в the Passive Voice:
They traveled to Lisbon last summer.
I have a shower every morning.